The Bond Head Treaties 1836
In 1836, Lieutenant-Governor Sir Francis Bond Head wanted to move farming Aboriginal peoples to Manitoulin Island, where they could hunt and fish in isolation from the corrosive forces of “civilization” — and also fulfil the lieutenant-governor’s stereotype of noble savagery.
Manitoulin was designated permanent Aboriginal territory in a treaty at the gift-distribution ceremonies at Manitowaning in 1836. Chief Shawanosowe signed the 1836 Treaty.
Bond Head never succeeded in persuading Aboriginal peoples in the more arable southern lands to move to Manitoulin. In fact, in negotiating with the Saugeen people, he found they mostly wanted a commitment that the Crown would protect their ancestral land from squatters.
Robinson Huron Treaty 1850
William Benjamin Robinson secured agreement from Aboriginal leaders to “cede, grant, and convey unto Her Majesty” about 50,000 square miles (129,500 km2) north of the upper Great Lakes. These transactions, known as the Robinson-Huron and Robinson-Superior treaties, provided for the creation of 21 new reserves, each to be held by the Crown for the “use and benefit” of the groups whose leaders’ names and marks were on the agreements.
In the Robinson Treaties, the Crown promised that Aboriginal peoples could hunt and fish throughout the ceded territory “as they have heretofore been in the habit of doing.” This promise, the first of its kind in an Aboriginal treaty, was made, Robinson explained, so that Aboriginal peoples could not make future claims in return for loss of “their usual means of support.”
These words go far to capture the nature of the tradeoffs in this and many subsequent treaties. The Indians agree to open the largest part of their ancestral lands for non-Indian settlement in return for security of land tenure in a smaller area or areas.
Chief Waubekeke is the 4th signatory to the Treaty of 1850 taken in Sault Ste. Marie on Sept 9th, 1850.
We derive $4.00 per person annually as a result of this treaty. This payment is also known as a Treaty Payment or Annuity.